“Research” is a very broad term, covering an entire spectrum of activities from basic research to applied research to product development. The vast majority of academic scientists conduct basic (or pure) research, which involves gaining more comprehensive knowledge or understanding of the subject under study without specific applications in mind.
Professors and their students, funded by grants, create new theories and hypotheses, then design and conduct experiments to test them. Results are published in peer- reviewed journals, and scientists at different institutions test and build on each other’s work.
Many government labs also conduct some basic research; however, even though the research may not have specific applications as its goal, the subject area is limited because it must pertain to the mission of the funding agency.
Industrial employers are generally more concerned with applied research—gathering knowledge with the goal of producing useful materials or devices to meet specific, recognized requirements. Industrial scientists apply their academic knowledge to real-world problems and develop products that meet a specific need, while factoring in business considerations. For example, chemists might develop a new food with enhanced flavor to increase sales or with a longer shelf life to save money. Applied research has traditionally been used in industry, but academics are becoming more interested in the practical applications of their work.
Once applied research has identified a workable solution to a specific problem, the focus shifts to development of a specific product. This phase involves refining the solution to produce a substance that will be effective, safe and appealing and that can be manufactured in a timely and cost-effective way.
Typical job duties
- Conducting experiments to ensure the main features and functions of a new product are retained as other properties are changed.
- Working with process engineers to scale up processes and make the new product in larger quantities for commercialization.
- Filing regulatory documents.
- Identifying acceptable ranges for starting materials and final products (e.g., do the starting materials need to be 95% pure, or is 90% acceptable?).
- Reformulating existing products in response to changes in regulations or availability of raw materials.
- Using Design of Experiments methodology to learn as much as possible in the fewest number of experiments.
Companies conduct applied research and product development in a vast number of sectors and markets, ranging from commodities to fine chemicals to specialty chemicals. These compounds are then modified, combined, and formulated for specific uses in industries such as agrochemical, pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical, and personal care. Companies may develop compounds to be sold to consumers or ingredients to be sold to other businesses.
In most cases, the final products that you see on store shelves are a mixture of basic and specialty chemicals. For the most part, large chemical companies produce basic chemicals as commodities and companies of all sizes produce specialty chemicals.
Product development involves a blend of science and business. The scientist may come up with the idea for a new product, but they must convince the business manager and manufacturers that it will be profitable and can be manufactured cost-effectively. The product development timeline must be synchronized with sales and marketing departments and with manufacturing efforts.
- Analytical and problem-solving skills.
- Familiarity with basic statistical analysis and Design of Experiments methodology.
- Literature searching skills to find relevant patent and scientific literature and information regarding competing technologies.
- Desire to find a practical solution to the problem at hand, as well as understanding why it occurred in order to prevent future recurrences.
- Oral presentation skills to sell your ideas to both scientists and non-scientists, including internal staff and external investors and customers.
- Written communication skills to maintain data and report results, as well as creating technical service documentation for customers, articles for trade magazines and journals, and more.
- Time management, prioritization, and planning skills to balance multiple simultaneous projects.
- Interpersonal skills, often including both management and supervisory skills, as well as the ability to work with suppliers and customers who have a wide variety of backgrounds.
In industry, most chemists start out in research and then advance by climbing either the research or management career ladder. The research ladder involves staying close to product development, taking on more supervisory responsibilities and larger projects. The management or business ladder involves moving away from the lab bench and more into sales/ marketing or operations/production of highly technical products that are sold to other businesses rather than consumers. Scientists in management generally have slightly more experience than those in research, and they earn slightly higher salaries.
Once you move out of research and into management, it is difficult to move back to the laboratory, as your technical knowledge and skills become outdated quickly.
Original content at acs.org